Scientific publications

One Day in Denmark: Nationwide point-prevalence survey of human bacterial isolates and comparison of classical and whole-genome sequence-based species identification methods
Rebelo et al. 2022

Implementing whole-genome sequencing (WGS) technologies in clinical microbiology laboratories can increase the amount and quality of information available for healthcare practitioners. In this study, we analysed the applicability of this method and determined the distribution of bacterial species processed in clinical settings in Denmark.

DOI:   11 February 2022

ResFinder – an open online resource for identification of antimicrobial resistance genes in next-generation sequencing data and prediction of phenotypes from genotypes
Florensa et al. 2022

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the most important health threats globally. The ability to accurately identify resistant bacterial isolates and the individual antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) is essential for understanding the evolution and emergence of AMR and to provide appropriate treatment. The rapid developments in next-generation sequencing technologies have made this technology available to researchers and microbiologists at routine laboratories around the world. However, tools available for those with limited experience with bioinformatics are lacking, especially to enable researchers and microbiologists in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to perform their own studies. The CGE-tools (Center for Genomic Epidemiology) including ResFinder ( was developed to provide freely available easy to use online bioinformatic tools allowing inexperienced researchers and microbiologists to perform simple bioinformatic analyses. The main purpose was and is to provide these solutions for people involved in frontline diagnosis especially in LMICs. Since its original publication in 2012, ResFinder has undergone a number of improvements including improvement of the code and databases, inclusion of point mutations for selected bacterial species and predictions of phenotypes also for selected species.

DOI:    24 January 2022

Emergence of ST39 carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae producing VIM-1 and KPC-2
Karampatakis et al. 2021

Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) causes life-threatening hospital-acquired infections. KPC and VIM carbapenemase production is the main molecular mechanism for carbapenem resistance. The aim of the current study was the genetic characterization of four ST39 CRKP isolates simultaneously producing VIM-1 and KPC-2, obtained in a Greek tertiary hospital.

DOI:   24 December 2021

Adaptation, spread and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in farmed minks and associated humans in the Netherlands
Lu Lu, et al. 2021

In the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (April 2020), SARS-CoV-2 was detected in farmed minks and genomic sequencing was performed on mink farms and farm personnel. Here, we describe the outbreak and use sequence data with Bayesian phylodynamic methods to explore SARS-CoV-2 transmission in minks and humans on farms. High number of farm infections (68/126) in minks and farm workers (>50% of farms) were detected, with limited community spread. Three of five initial introductions of SARS-CoV-2 led to subsequent spread between mink farms until November 2020. Viruses belonging to the largest cluster acquired an amino acid substitution in the receptor binding domain of the Spike protein (position 486), evolved faster and spread longer and more widely. Movement of people and distance between farms were statistically significant predictors of virus dispersal between farms. Our study provides novel insights into SARS-CoV-2 transmission between mink farms and highlights the importance of combining genetic information with epidemiological information when investigating outbreaks at the animal-human interface.

DOI:   23 November 2021

Detection of antimicrobial resistance genes in urban air
Becsei et al. 2021

To understand antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria, we need to monitor environmental microbes as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). These bacteria are present in the air and can be investigated with the whole metagenome shotgun sequencing approach. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of a method for metagenomic analysis of microbial composition and ARGs in the outdoor air.

DOI:   16 November 2021

Association between guilds of birds in the African-Western Palaearctic region and the tick species Hyalomma rufipes, one of the main vectors of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus
Hoffman et al. 2021

The ecology of the vertebrate host contributes to the geographical range expansion of ticks. In this study, we investigated which tick taxa that infest and are dispersed by birds along African-Western Palaearctic flyways during northward migration, and whether bird ecology was associated with tick taxa.

DOI:   11 November 2021

Common Laboratory Mice Are Susceptible to Infection with the SARS-CoV-2 Beta Variant
Kant et al. 2021

Small animal models are of crucial importance for assessing COVID-19 countermeasures. Common laboratory mice would be well-suited for this purpose but are not susceptible to infection with wild-type SARS-CoV-2. However, the development of mouse-adapted virus strains has revealed key mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein that increase infectivity, and interestingly, many of these mutations are also present in naturally occurring SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. This suggests that these variants might have the ability to infect common laboratory mice. Herein we show that the SARS-CoV-2 beta variant attains infectibility to BALB/c mice and causes pulmonary changes within 2–3 days post infection, consistent with results seen in other murine models of COVID-19, at a reasonable virus dose (2 × 105 PFU). The findings suggest that common laboratory mice can serve as the animal model of choice for testing the effectiveness of antiviral drugs and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2.

DOI:   11 November 2021

Incidence Trends for SARS-CoV-2 Alpha and Beta Variants, Finland, Spring 2021
Kant et al. 2021

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Alpha and Beta variants became dominant in Finland in spring 2021 but had diminished by summer. We used phylogenetic clustering to identify sources of spreading. We found that outbreaks were mostly seeded by a few introductions, highlighting the importance of surveillance and prevention policies.

DOI:   27 October 2021

Case Report: The Carotid Body in COVID-19: Histopathological and Virological Analyses of an Autopsy Case Series
Porzionato et al. 2021

Various authors have hypothesized carotid body (CB) involvement in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), through direct invasion or indirect effects by systemic stimuli (‘cytokine storm’, angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE]1/ACE2 imbalance). However, empirical evidence is limited or partial. Here, we present an integrated histopathological and virological analysis of CBs sampled at autopsy from four subjects (2 males and 2 females; age: >70 years old) who died of COVID-19.

DOI:   26 October 2021

Mobile Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Probiotics
Toth et al. 2021

Even though people worldwide tend to consume probiotic products for their beneficial health effects on a daily basis, recently, concerns were outlined regarding the uptake and potential intestinal colonisation of the bacteria that they carry. These bacteria are capable of executing horizontal gene transfer (HGT) which facilitates the movement of various genes, including antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs), among the donor and recipient bacterial populations. Within our study, 47 shotgun sequencing datasets deriving from various probiotic samples (isolated strains and metagenomes) were bioinformatically analysed. We detected more than 70 ARGs, out of which rpoB mutants conferring resistance to rifampicin, tet(W/N/W) and potentially extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) coding TEM-116 were the most common. Numerous ARGs were associated with integrated mobile genetic elements, plasmids or phages promoting the HGT. Our findings raise clinical and public health concerns as the consumption of probiotic products may lead to the transfer of ARGs to human gut bacteria.

DOI:   21 October 2021

Synergistic Block of SARS-CoV-2 Infection by Combined Drug Inhibition of the Host Entry Factors PIKfyve Kinase and TMPRSS2 Protease
Kreutzberger et al. 2021

Repurposing FDA-approved inhibitors able to prevent infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) could provide a rapid path to establish new therapeutic options to mitigate the effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Proteolytic cleavages of the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2, mediated by the host cell proteases cathepsin and TMPRSS2, alone or in combination, are key early activation steps required for efficient infection. The PIKfyve kinase inhibitor apilimod interferes with late endosomal viral traffic and through an ill-defined mechanism prevents in vitro infection through late endosomes mediated by cathepsin. Similarly, inhibition of TMPRSS2 protease activity by camostat mesylate or nafamostat mesylate prevents infection mediated by the TMPRSS2-dependent and cathepsin-independent pathway.

DOI:   13 October 2021

Pandemics– One Health preparedness for the next
Frank M. Aarestrup, Marc Bonten, Marion Koopmans

The majority of emerging infectious diseases originate in animals. Current routine surveillance is focused on known diseases and clinical syndromes, but the increasing likelihood of emerging disease outbreaks shows the critical importance of early detection of unusual illness or circulation of pathogens - prior to human disease manifestation. In this Viewpoint, we focus on one key pillar of preparedness—the need for early warning surveillance at the human, animal, environmental interface. The COVID-19 pandemic has revolutionized the scale of sequencing of pathogen genomes, and the current investments in global genomic surveillance offer great potential for a novel, truly integrated Disease X (with epidemic or pandemic potential) surveillance arm provided we do not make the mistake of developing them solely for the case at hand.

DOI:   07 October 2021

Clusters of science and health related Twitter users become more isolated during the COVID-19 pandemic
Durazzi et al. 2021

COVID-19 represents the most severe global crisis to date whose public conversation can be studied in real time. To do so, we use a data set of over 350 million tweets and retweets posted by over 26 million English speaking Twitter users from January 13 to June 7, 2020. We characterize the retweet network to identify spontaneous clustering of users and the evolution of their interaction over time in relation to the pandemic’s emergence. We identify several stable clusters (super-communities), and are able to link them to international groups mainly involved in science and health topics, national elites, and political actors. The science- and health-related super-community received disproportionate attention early on during the pandemic, and was leading the discussion at the time.

DOI:   04 October 2021

The next phase of SARS-CoV-2 surveillance: real-time molecular epidemiology
Oude Munnink et al. 2021

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is the first to apply whole-genome sequencing near to real time, with over 2 million severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) whole-genome sequences generated and shared through the GISAID platform. This genomic resource informed public health decision-making throughout the pandemic; it also allowed detection of mutations that might affect virulence, pathogenesis, host range or immune escape as well as the effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics and therapeutics. However, genotype-to-phenotype predictions cannot be performed at the rapid pace of genomic sequencing. To prepare for the next phase of the pandemic, a systematic approach is needed to link global genomic surveillance and timely assessment of the phenotypic characteristics of novel variants, which will support the development and updating of diagnostics, vaccines, therapeutics and nonpharmaceutical interventions. This Review summarizes the current knowledge on key viral mutations and variants and looks to the next phase of surveillance of the evolving pandemic.

DOI:    09 September 2021

Seasonal coronavirus–specific B cells with limited SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactivity dominate the IgG response in severe COVID-19
Aguilar-Bretones et al. 2021

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Little is known about the interplay between preexisting immunity to endemic seasonal coronaviruses and the development of a SARS-CoV-2–specific IgG response. We investigated the kinetics, breadth, magnitude, and level of cross-reactivity of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and heterologous seasonal and epidemic coronaviruses at the clonal level in patients with mild or severe COVID-19 as well as in disease control patients. We assessed antibody reactivity to nucleocapsid and spike antigens and correlated this IgG response to SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. Patients with COVID-19 mounted a mostly type-specific SARS-CoV-2 response.

DOI:   09 September 2021

Differential plasmacytoid dendritic cell phenotype and type I Interferon response in asymptomatic and severe COVID-19 infection
Severa et al. 2021

SARS-CoV-2 fine-tunes the interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral responses, which play a key role in preventing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) progression. Indeed, critically ill patients show an impaired type I IFN response accompanied by elevated inflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels, responsible for cell and tissue damage and associated multi-organ failure. Here, the early interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and immune cells was investigated by interrogating an in vitro human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-based experimental model. We found that, even in absence of a productive viral replication, the virus mediates a vigorous TLR7/8-dependent production of both type I and III IFNs and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, known to contribute to the cytokine storm observed in COVID-19.

DOI:    02 September 2021

The central role of Italy in the spatial spread of USUTU virus in Europe
Zecchin et al. 2021

USUTU virus (USUV) is an arbovirus maintained in the environment through a bird–mosquito enzootic cycle. Previous surveillance plans highlighted the endemicity of USUV in North-eastern Italy. In this work, we sequenced 138 new USUV full genomes from mosquito pools (Culex pipiens) and wild birds collected in North-eastern Italy and we investigated the evolutionary processes (phylogenetic analysis, selection pressure and evolutionary time-scale analysis) and spatial spread of USUV strains circulating in the European context and in Italy, with a particular focus on North-eastern Italy. Our results confirmed the circulation of viruses belonging to four different lineages in Italy (EU1, EU2, EU3 and EU4), with the newly sequenced viruses from the North-eastern regions, Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia, belonging to the EU2 lineage and clustering into two different sub-lineages, EU2-A and EU2-B.

DOI:    31 August 2021

Wolbachia prevalence in the vector species Culex pipiens and Culex torrentium in a Sindbis virus-endemic region of Sweden
Alexander Bergman & Jenny C. Hesson

Wolbachia pipientis are endosymbiotic bacteria present in a large proportion of terrestrial arthropods. The species is known to sometimes affect the ability of its host to transmit vector-borne pathogens. Central Sweden is endemic for Sindbis virus (SINV), where it is mainly transmitted by the vector species Culex pipiens and Culex torrentium, with the latter established as the main vector. In this study we investigated the Wolbachia prevalence in these two vector species in a region highly endemic for SINV.

DOI:   26 August 2021

Autochthonous dengue outbreak in Italy 2020: Clinical, virological and entomological findings
Barzon et al. 2021

Background: In August 2020, in the context of COVID-19 pandemics, an autochthonous dengue outbreak was identified for the first time in Italy.
Methods: Following the reporting of the index case of autochthonous dengue, epidemiological investigation, vector control, and substances of human origin safety measures were immediately activated, according to the national arbovirus surveillance plan. Dengue cases were followed-up with weekly visits and laboratory tests until recovery and clearance of viral RNA from blood.

DOI:   18 August 2021

Temporal Dynamics of Influenza A(H5N1) Subtype before and after the Emergence of H5N8
Amer et al. 2021

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses continue to circulate worldwide, causing numerous outbreaks among bird species and severe public health concerns. H5N1 and H5N8 are the two most fundamental HPAI subtypes detected in birds in the last two decades. The two viruses may compete with each other while sharing the same host population and, thus, suppress the spread of one of the viruses. In this study, we performed a statistical analysis to investigate the temporal correlation of the HPAI H5N1 and HPAI H5N8 subtypes using globally reported data in 2015–2020. This was joined with an in-depth analysis using data generated via our national surveillance program in Egypt. A total of 6412 outbreaks were reported worldwide during this period, with 39% (2529) as H5N1 and 61% (3883) as H5N8. In Egypt, 65% of positive cases were found in backyards, while only 12% were found in farms and 23% in live bird markets.

DOI:   07 August 2021

Genetic data in the fight against pandemics, 2021/ A genetikai adatok szerepe a járványok elleni küzdelemben
Becsei et al. 2021

Hungarian language article
A COVID–19-járvány alatt bizonyossá vált, hogy az adattudományok, az adatok gyors megosztása és a nemzetközi összefogás a hatékony járványkezelés kulcsfontosságú eszközei. A járvány előtt létrejött Újonnan Felbukkanó fertőző betegségek Obszervatóriuma (Versatile Emerging infectious disease Observatory, VEO) nevű nemzetközi konzorcium célja egy olyan monitorozó rendszer kiépítése, amely a potenciálisan veszélyes kórokozókat még az előtt azonosítja, mielőtt azok tömeges megbetegedéseket okoznának, lehetőséget adva ezzel a gyors reagálásra.

DOI:     30 July 2021

At the tip of an iceberg: citizen science and active surveillance collaborating to broaden the known distribution of Aedes japonicus in Spain
Eritja et al. 2021

Active surveillance aimed at the early detection of invasive mosquito species is usually focused on seaports and airports as points of entry, and along road networks as dispersion paths. In a number of cases, however, the first detections of colonizing populations are made by citizens, either because the species has already moved beyond the implemented active surveillance sites or because there is no surveillance in place. This was the case of the first detection in 2018 of the Asian bush mosquito, Aedes japonicus, in Asturias (northern Spain) by the citizen science platform Mosquito Alert.

DOI:   26 July 2021

HaVoC, a bioinformatic pipeline for reference-based consensus assembly and lineage assignment for SARS-CoV-2 sequences
Nguyen et al. 2021

SARS-CoV-2 related research has increased in importance worldwide since December 2019. Several new variants of SARS-CoV-2 have emerged globally, of which the most notable and concerning currently are the UK variant B.1.1.7, the South African variant B1.351 and the Brazilian variant P.1. Detecting and monitoring novel variants is essential in SARS-CoV-2 surveillance. While there are several tools for assembling virus genomes and performing lineage analyses to investigate SARS-CoV-2, each is limited to performing singular or a few functions separately.

DOI:  17 July 2021

Hypopharyngeal Ulcers in COVID-19: Histopathological and Virological Analyses – A Case Report
Porzionato et al. 2021

In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), ulcerative lesions have been episodically reported in various segments of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, including the oral cavity, oropharynx, esophagus, stomach and bowel. In this report, we describe an autopsy case of a COVID-19 patient who showed two undiagnosed ulcers at the level of the anterior and posterior walls of the hypopharynx. Molecular testing of viruses involved in pharyngeal ulcers demonstrated the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome – coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA, together with herpes simplex virus 1 DNA.

DOI:   05 July 2021

Predicting Spatial Patterns of Sindbis Virus (SINV) Infection Risk in Finland Using Vector, Host and Environmental Data
Uusitalo et al. 2021

Pogosta disease is a mosquito-borne infection, caused by Sindbis virus (SINV), which causes epidemics of febrile rash and arthritis in Northern Europe and South Africa. Resident grouse and migratory birds play a significant role as amplifying hosts and various mosquito species, including Aedes cinereus, Culex pipiens, Cx. torrentium and Culiseta morsitans are documented vectors. As specific treatments are not available for SINV infections, and joint symptoms may persist, the public health burden is considerable in endemic areas. To predict the environmental suitability for SINV infections in Finland, we applied a suite of geospatial and statistical modeling techniques to disease occurrence data. Using an ensemble approach, we first produced environmental suitability maps for potential SINV vectors in Finland. These suitability maps were then combined with grouse densities and environmental data to identify the influential determinants for SINV infections and to predict the risk of Pogosta disease in Finnish municipalities. Our predictions suggest that both the environmental suitability for vectors and the high risk of Pogosta disease are focused in geographically restricted areas. This provides evidence that the presence of both SINV vector species and grouse densities can predict the occurrence of the disease. The results support material for public-health officials when determining area-specific recommendations and deliver information to health care personnel to raise awareness of the disease among physicians.

DOI:   01 July 2021

West Nile fever upsurge in a Greek regional unit, 2020
Papa et al. 2021

During the 2020 West Nile virus (WNV) transmission season, Greece was the most affected EU Member State. More than one third of human cases occurred in Serres regional unit in northern Greece, which is characterized by the presence of a major wetland (Kerkini lake and Strimon river). A total of 2809 Culex pipiens mosquitoes collected in Serres were grouped into 70 pools and tested for WNV. Ten (14.3%) pools were found positive, and all WNV sequences belonged to the Central European subclade of WNV lineage 2. The first human case occurred in a village nearby the lake, and all following cases occurred across the connected river and its tributaries. Similar distribution presented the sites where WNV-positive mosquitoes were detected. The number of Culex spp. mosquitoes per trap per night was higher in 2020 than in previous years (2017-2019). The spatial and temporal distribution of human cases and WNV-positive mosquitoes in 2020 in Serres regional unit suggest that the upsurge of the virus circulation was probably related with factors that affected the ecosystem of the wetland.

DOI:    12 June 2021

SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Human Antibodies Protect Against Lower Respiratory Tract Disease in a Hamster Model
Haagmans et al. 2021

Effective clinical intervention strategies for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are urgently needed. Although several clinical trials have evaluated use of convalescent plasma containing virus-neutralizing antibodies, levels of neutralizing antibodies are usually not assessed and the effectiveness has not been proven. We show that hamsters treated prophylactically with a 1:2560 titer of human convalescent plasma or a 1:5260 titer of monoclonal antibody were protected against weight loss, had a significant reduction of virus replication in the lungs, and showed reduced pneumonia. Interestingly, this protective effect was lost with a titer of 1:320 of convalescent plasma. These data highlight the importance of screening plasma donors for high levels of neutralizing antibodies. Our data show that prophylactic administration of high levels of neutralizing antibody, either monoclonal or from convalescent plasma, prevent severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in a hamster model, and could be used as an alternative or complementary to other antiviral treatments for COVID-19.

DOI:   08 June 2021

MINTyper: an outbreak-detection method for accurate and rapid SNP typing of clonal clusters with noisy long reads
Hallgren et al. 2021

For detection of clonal outbreaks in clinical settings, we present a complete pipeline that generates a single-nucleotide polymorphisms-distance matrix from a set of sequencing reads. Importantly, the program is able to handle a separate mix of both short reads from the Illumina sequencing platforms and long reads from Oxford Nanopore Technologies’ (ONT) platforms as input. MINTyper performs automated reference identification, alignment, alignment trimming, optional methylation masking, and pairwise distance calculations. With this approach, we could rapidly and accurately cluster a set of DNA sequenced isolates, with a known epidemiological relationship to confirm the clustering. Functions were built to allow for both high-accuracy methylation-aware base-called MinION reads (hac_m Q10) and fast generated lower-quality reads (fast Q8) to be used, also in combination with Illumina data. With fast Q8 reads a higher number of base pairs were excluded from the calculated distance matrix, compared with the high-accuracy methylation-aware Q10 base-calling of ONT data. Nonetheless, when using different qualities of ONT data with corresponding input parameters, the clustering of isolates were nearly identical.

DOI:      21 April 2021

Monitoring SARS-CoV-2 Circulation and Diversity through Community Wastewater Sequencing, the Netherlands and Belgium
Izquierdo-Lara et al. 2021

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly become a major global health problem, and public health surveillance is crucial to monitor and prevent virus spread. Wastewater-based epidemiology has been proposed as an addition to disease-based surveillance because virus is shed in the feces of ≈40% of infected persons. We used next-generation sequencing of sewage samples to evaluate the diversity of SARS-CoV-2 at the community level in the Netherlands and Belgium. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of the most prevalent clades (19A, 20A, and 20B) and clustering of sewage samples with clinical samples from the same region. We distinguished multiple clades within a single sewage sample by using low-frequency variant analysis. In addition, several novel mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 genome were detected. Our results illustrate how wastewater can be used to investigate the diversity of SARS-CoV-2 viruses circulating in a community and identify new outbreaks.

DOI:    31 March 2021

Experimental SARS-CoV-2 Infection of Bank Voles
Ulrich et al. 2021

After experimental inoculation, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection was confirmed in bank voles by seroconversion within 8 days and detection of viral RNA in nasal tissue for up to 21 days. However, transmission to contact animals was not detected. Thus, bank voles are unlikely to establish effective transmission cycles in nature.

DOI:   11 March 2021

Co-infections: Simultaneous detections of West Nile virus and Usutu virus in birds from Germany
Santos et al. 2021

The emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) in Europe resulted in significant outbreaks leading to avifauna mortality and human infections. Both viruses have overlapping geographical, host and vector ranges, and are often co-circulating in Europe. In Germany, a nationwide bird surveillance network was established to monitor these zoonotic arthropod-borne viruses in migratory and resident birds. In this framework, co-infections with WNV and USUV were detected in six dead birds collected in 2018 and 2019. Genomic sequencing and phylogenetic analyses classified the detected WNV strains as lineage 2 and the USUV strains as lineages Africa 2 (n = 2), Africa 3 (n = 3) and Europe 2 (n = 1). Preliminary attempts to co-propagate both viruses in vitro failed. However, we successfully cultivated WNV from two animals. Further evidence for WNV-USUV co-infection was obtained by sampling live birds in four zoological gardens with confirmed WNV cases. Three snowy owls had high neutralizing antibody titres against both WNV and USUV, of which two were also positive for USUV-RNA. In conclusion, further reports of co-infections in animals as well as in humans are expected in the future, particularly in areas where both viruses are present in the vector population.

DOI:   02 March 2021

SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Disease Modelling Using Stem Cell Technology and Organoids
Trevisan et al. 2021

In this Review, we briefly describe the basic virology and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2, highlighting how stem cell technology and organoids can contribute to the understanding of SARS-CoV-2 cell tropisms and the mechanism of disease in the human host, supporting and clarifying findings from clinical studies in infected individuals. We summarize here the results of studies, which used these technologies to investigate SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis in different organs. Studies with in vitro models of lung epithelia showed that alveolar epithelial type II cells, but not differentiated lung alveolar epithelial type I cells, are key targets of SARS-CoV-2, which triggers cell apoptosis and inflammation, while impairing surfactant production. Experiments with human small intestinal organoids and colonic organoids showed that the gastrointestinal tract is another relevant target for SARS-CoV-2. The virus can infect and replicate in enterocytes and cholangiocytes, inducing cell damage and inflammation. Direct viral damage was also demonstrated in in vitro models of human cardiomyocytes and choroid plexus epithelial cells. At variance, endothelial cells and neurons are poorly susceptible to viral infection, thus supporting the hypothesis that neurological symptoms and vascular damage result from the indirect effects of systemic inflammatory and immunological hyper-responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

DOI:   26 February 2021

SARS-CoV-2 spike D614G change enhances replication and transmission
Zhou et al. 2021

During the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 in humans, a D614G substitution in the spike glycoprotein (S) has emerged; virus containing this substitution has become the predominant circulating variant in the COVID-19 pandemic1. However, whether the increasing prevalence of this variant reflects a fitness advantage that improves replication and/or transmission in humans or is merely due to founder effects remains unknown. Here we use isogenic SARS-CoV-2 variants to demonstrate that the variant that contains S(D614G) has enhanced binding to the human cell-surface receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), increased replication in primary human bronchial and nasal airway epithelial cultures as well as in a human ACE2 knock-in mouse model, and markedly increased replication and transmissibility in hamster and ferret models of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our data show that the D614G substitution in S results in subtle increases in binding and replication in vitro, and provides a real competitive advantage in vivo—particularly during the transmission bottleneck. Our data therefore provide an explanation for the global predominance of the variant that contains S(D614G) among the SARS-CoV-2 viruses that are currently circulating.

DOI:   26 February 2021

Deep learning identification for citizen science surveillance of tiger mosquitoes
Pataki et al. 2021

Global monitoring of disease vectors is undoubtedly becoming an urgent need as the human population rises and becomes increasingly mobile, international commercial exchanges increase, and climate change expands the habitats of many vector species. Traditional surveillance of mosquitoes, vectors of many diseases, relies on catches, which requires regular manual inspection and reporting, and dedicated personnel, making large-scale monitoring difficult and expensive. New approaches are solving the problem of scalability by relying on smartphones and the Internet to enable novel community-based and digital observatories, where people can upload pictures of mosquitoes whenever they encounter them. An example is the Mosquito Alert citizen science system, which includes a dedicated mobile phone app through which geotagged images are collected. This system provides a viable option for monitoring the spread of various mosquito species across the globe, although it is partly limited by the quality of the citizen scientists’ photos. To make the system useful for public health agencies, and to give feedback to the volunteering citizens, the submitted images are inspected and labeled by entomology experts.

DOI:    25 February 2021

Next-generation diagnostics: virus capture facilitates a sensitive viral diagnosis for epizootic and zoonotic pathogens including SARS-CoV-2
Wylezich et al. 2021

The detection of pathogens in clinical and environmental samples using high-throughput sequencing (HTS) is often hampered by large amounts of background information, which is especially true for viruses with small genomes. Enormous sequencing depth can be necessary to compile sufficient information for identification of a certain pathogen. Generic HTS combining with in-solution capture enrichment can markedly increase the sensitivity for virus detection in complex diagnostic samples. A virus panel based on the principle of biotinylated RNA baits was developed for specific capture enrichment of epizootic and zoonotic viruses (VirBaits). The VirBaits set was supplemented by a SARS-CoV-2 predesigned bait set for testing recent SARS-CoV-2-positive samples. Libraries generated from complex samples were sequenced via generic HTS (without enrichment) and afterwards enriched with the VirBaits set. For validation, an internal proficiency test for emerging epizootic and zoonotic viruses (African swine fever virus, Ebolavirus, Marburgvirus, Nipah henipavirus, Rift Valley fever virus) was conducted. The VirBaits approach showed a high diagnostic performance, also for distantly related viruses. The bait set is modular and expandable according to the favored diagnostics, health sector, or research question. The risk of cross-contamination needs to be taken into consideration. The application of the RNA-baits principle turned out to be user friendly, and even non-experts can easily use the VirBaits workflow. The rapid extension of the established VirBaits set adapted to actual outbreak events is possible as shown for SARS-CoV-2.

DOI:  20 February 2021

Genomic monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 uncovers an Nsp1 deletion variant that modulates type I interferon response
Lin et al. 2021

The SARS-CoV-2 virus, the causative agent of COVID-19, is undergoing constant mutation. Here, we utilized an integrative approach combining epidemiology, virus genome sequencing, clinical phenotyping, and experimental validation to locate mutations of clinical importance. We identified 35 recurrent variants, some of which are associated with clinical phenotypes related to severity. One variant, containing a deletion in the Nsp1-coding region (Δ500-532), was found in more than 20% of our sequenced samples and associates with higher RT-PCR cycle thresholds and lower serum IFN-β levels of infected patients. Deletion variants in this locus were found in 37 countries worldwide, and viruses isolated from clinical samples or engineered by reverse genetics with related deletions in Nsp1 also induce lower IFN-β responses in infected Calu-3 cells. Taken together, our virologic surveillance characterizes recurrent genetic diversity and identified mutations in Nsp1 of biological and clinical importance, which collectively may aid molecular diagnostics and drug design.

DOI:   29 January 2021

Filling the gaps in the global prevalence map of clinical antimicrobial resistance
Oldenkamp et al. 2020

Surveillance is critical in containing globally increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Affordable methodologies to prioritize AMR surveillance efforts are urgently needed, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where resources are limited. While socioeconomic characteristics correlate with clinical AMR prevalence, this correlation has not yet been used to estimate AMR prevalence in countries lacking surveillance. We captured the statistical relationship between AMR prevalence and socioeconomic characteristics in a suite of beta-binomial principal component regression models for nine pathogens resistant to 19 (classes of) antibiotics. Prevalence data from ResistanceMap were combined with socioeconomic profiles constructed from 5,595 World Bank indicators. Cross-validated models were used to estimate clinical AMR prevalence and temporal trends for countries lacking data. Our approach provides robust estimates of clinical AMR prevalence in LMICs for most priority pathogens (cross-validated q2 > 0.78 for six out of nine pathogens).

DOI:   05 January 2021

A glimpse of antimicrobial resistance gene diversity in kefir and yoghurt
Tóth et al. 2020

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global threat gaining more and more practical significance every year. The main determinants of AMR are the antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). Since bacteria can share genetic components via horizontal gene transfer, even non-pathogenic bacteria may provide ARG to any pathogens which they become physically close to (e.g. in the human gut). In addition, fermented food naturally contains bacteria in high amounts. In this study, we examined the diversity of ARG content in various kefir and yoghurt samples (products, grains, bacterial strains) using a unified metagenomic approach. We found numerous ARGs of commonly used fermenting bacteria.

DOI:    31 December 2020

Occurrence of Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the Domestic Cat Population of Germany
Michelitsch et al. 2020

Domestic cats (Felis catus) are popular companion animals that live in close contact with their human owners. Therefore, the risk of a trans-species spreading event between domestic cats and humans is ever-present. Shortly after the emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its rapid spread around the world, the role of domestic cats in the transmission cycle was questioned. In the present study, the first large-scale survey of antibody occurrence in the domestic cat population in Germany was conducted, in order to assess the incidence of naturally occurring human to cat transmission of SARS-CoV-2. A total of 920 serum samples, which were collected from April to September of 2020, were screened by an indirect multispecies ELISA.

DOI:    17 December 2020

Novel NGS pipeline for virus discovery from a wide spectrum of hosts and sample types
Plyusnin et al. 2020

The study of the microbiome data holds great potential for elucidating the biological and metabolic functioning of living organisms and their role in the environment. Metagenomic analyses have shown that humans, along with for example, domestic animals, wildlife and arthropods, are colonized by an immense community of viruses. The current Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) heightens the need to rapidly detect previously unknown viruses in an unbiased way. The increasing availability of metagenomic data in this era of next-generation sequencing (NGS), along with increasingly affordable sequencing technologies, highlight the need for reliable and comprehensive methods to manage such data. In this article, we present a novel bioinformatics pipeline called LAZYPIPE for identifying both previously known and novel viruses in host associated or environmental samples and give examples of virus discovery based on it. LAZYPIPE is a Unix-based pipeline for automated assembling and taxonomic profiling of NGS libraries implemented as a collection of C++, Perl, and R scripts.

DOI:  02 December 2020

Susceptibility of Raccoon Dogs for Experimental SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Freuling et al. 2020

Raccoon dogs might have been intermediate hosts for severe acute respiratory syndrome–associated coronavirus in 2002–2004. We demonstrated susceptibility of raccoon dogs to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and transmission to in-contact animals. Infected animals had no signs of illness. Virus replication and tissue lesions occurred in the nasal conchae.

DOI:   10.3201/eid2612.203733   18 November 2020

Multi‐species ELISA for the detection of antibodies against SARS‐CoV‐2 in animals
Wernike et al. 2020

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) has caused a pandemic with millions of infected humans and hundreds of thousands of fatalities. As the novel disease – referred to as COVID‐19 – unfolded, occasional anthropozoonotic infections of animals by owners or caretakers were reported in dogs, felid species and farmed mink. Further species were shown to be susceptible under experimental conditions. The extent of natural infections of animals, however, is still largely unknown. Serological methods will be useful tools for tracing SARS‐CoV‐2 infections in animals once test systems are evaluated for use in different species. Here, we developed an indirect multi‐species ELISA based on the receptor‐binding domain (RBD) of SARS‐CoV‐2.

DOI:   15 November 2020

Neuropilin-1 facilitates SARS-CoV-2 cell entry and infectivity
Cantuti-Castelvetri et al. 2020

The causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). For many viruses, tissue tropism is determined by the availability of virus receptors and entry cofactors on the surface of host cells. In this study, we found that neuropilin-1 (NRP1), known to bind furin-cleaved substrates, significantly potentiates SARS-CoV-2 infectivity, an effect blocked by a monoclonal blocking antibody against NRP1. A SARS-CoV-2 mutant with an altered furin cleavage site did not depend on NRP1 for infectivity. Pathological analysis of olfactory epithelium obtained from human COVID-19 autopsies revealed that SARS-CoV-2 infected NRP1-positive cells facing the nasal cavity. Our data provide insight into SARS-CoV-2 cell infectivity and define a potential target for antiviral intervention.

DOI:   10.1126/science.abd2985    13 November 2020

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 on mink farms between humans and mink and back to humans
Oude Munnink et al. 2020

Animal experiments have shown that nonhuman primates, cats, ferrets, hamsters, rabbits, and bats can be infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In addition, SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been detected in felids, mink, and dogs in the field. Here, we describe an in-depth investigation using whole-genome sequencing of outbreaks on 16 mink farms and the humans living or working on these farms. We conclude that the virus was initially introduced by humans and has since evolved, most likely reflecting widespread circulation among mink in the beginning of the infection period, several weeks before detection. Despite enhanced biosecurity, early warning surveillance, and immediate culling of animals in affected farms, transmission occurred between mink farms in three large transmission clusters with unknown modes of transmission. Of the tested mink farm residents, employees, and/or individuals with whom they had been in contact, 68% had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Individuals for which whole genomes were available were shown to have been infected with strains with an animal sequence signature, providing evidence of animal-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2 within mink farms.

DOI:  10 November 2020

Phylogenetic Investigation of Norovirus Transmission between Humans and Animals
Villabruna et al. 2020

Norovirus infections are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, affecting people of all ages. There are 10 norovirus genogroups (GI-GX) that infect humans and animals in a host-specific manner. New variants and genotypes frequently emerge, and their origin is not well understood. One hypothesis is that new human infections may be seeded from an animal reservoir, as human noroviruses have occasionally been detected in animal species.

DOI:  10 November 2020

Automated download and clean-up of family-specific databases for kmer-based virus identification
Allesøe et al. 2020

Here, we present an automated pipeline for Download Of NCBI Entries (DONE) and continuous updating of a local sequence database based on user-specified queries. The database can be created with either protein or nucleotide sequences containing all entries or complete genomes only. The pipeline can automatically clean the database by removing entries with matches to a database of user-specified sequence contaminants. The default contamination entries include sequences from the UniVec database of plasmids, marker genes and sequencing adapters from NCBI, an E.coli genome, rRNA sequences, vectors and satellite sequences. Furthermore, duplicates are removed and the database is automatically screened for sequences from green fluorescent protein, luciferase and antibiotic resistance genes that might be present in some GenBank viral entries, and could lead to false positives in virus identification.

DOI:   08 October 2020

Experimental Infection and Genetic Characterization of Two Different Capripox Virus Isolates in Small Ruminants
Wolff et al. 2020

Capripox viruses, with their members “lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV)”, “goatpox virus (GTPV)” and “sheeppox virus (SPPV)”, are described as the most serious pox diseases of production animals. A GTPV isolate and a SPPV isolate were sequenced in a combined approach using nanopore MinION sequencing to obtain long reads and Illumina high throughput sequencing for short precise reads to gain full-length high-quality genome sequences. Concomitantly, sheep and goats were inoculated with SPPV and GTPV strains, respectively. During the animal trial, varying infection routes were compared: a combined intravenous and subcutaneous infection, an only intranasal infection, and the contact infection between naïve and inoculated animals.

DOI:   28 September 2020

The genetics of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of subtype H5 in Germany, 2006–2020
King et al. 2020b

The H5 A/Goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (gs/GD) lineage emerged in China in 1996. Rooted in the respective gs/GD lineage, the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) has genetically diversified into a plethora of clades and subclades and evolved into an assortment of sub‐ and genotypes. Some caused substantial losses in the poultry industry and had a major impact on wild bird populations alongside public health implications due to a zoonotic potential of certain clades. After the primary introduction of the HPAI H5N1 gs/GD lineage into Europe in autumn 2005 and winter 2005/2006, Germany has seen recurring incursions of four varying H5Nx subtypes (H5N1, H5N8, H5N5, H5N6) carrying multiple distinct reassortants, all descendants of the gs/GD virus.

DOI:   22 September 2020

Rapid multiplex MinION nanopore sequencing workflow for Influenza A viruses
King et al. 2020a

Due to the frequent reassortment and zoonotic potential of influenza A viruses, rapid gain of sequence information is crucial. Alongside established next-generation sequencing protocols, the MinION sequencing device (Oxford Nanopore Technologies) has become a serious competitor for routine whole-genome sequencing. Here, we established a novel, rapid and high-throughput MinION multiplexing workflow based on a universal RT-PCR.

DOI:   03 September 2020

CRHP Finder, a webtool for the detection of clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori from whole-genome sequencing data
Yusibova et al. 2020

Resistance to clarithromycin in Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is mediated by mutations in the domain V of the 23S rRNA gene (A2142G, A2143G, A2142C). Other polymorphisms in the 23S rRNA gene have been reported to cause low-level clarithromycin resistance but their importance is still under debate. In this study, we aimed to develop and evaluate the CRHP Finder webtool for detection of the most common mutations mediating clarithromycin resistance from whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data. Moreover, we included an analysis of 23 H pylori strains from Danish patients between January 2017 and September 2019 in Copenhagen, Denmark.

DOI:     26 August 2020

Modelling West Nile Virus and Usutu Virus Pathogenicity in Human Neural Stem Cells
Riccetti et al. 2020

West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are genetically related neurotropic mosquito-borne flaviviruses, which frequently co-circulate in nature. Despite USUV seeming to be less pathogenic for humans than WNV, the clinical manifestations induced by these two viruses often overlap and may evolve to produce severe neurological complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of WNV and USUV infection on human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells (hNSCs), as a model of the neural progenitor cells in the developing fetal brain and in adult brain.

DOI:    12 August 2020

Rapid SARS-CoV-2 whole-genome sequencing and analysis for informed public health decision-making in the Netherlands
Oude Munnink et al. 2020

In late December 2019, a cluster of cases of pneumonia of unknown etiology were reported linked to a market in Wuhan, China1. The causative agent was identified as the species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus and was named SARS-CoV-2 (ref. 2). By 16 April the virus had spread to 185 different countries, infected over 2,000,000 people and resulted in over 130,000 deaths3. In the Netherlands, the first case of SARS-CoV-2 was notified on 27 February. The outbreak started with several different introductory events from Italy, Austria, Germany and France followed by local amplification in, and later also outside, the south of the Netherlands. The combination of near to real-time whole-genome sequence analysis and epidemiology resulted in reliable assessments of the extent of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the community, facilitating early decision-making to control local transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the Netherlands. We demonstrate how these data were generated and analyzed, and how SARS-CoV-2 whole-genome sequencing, in combination with epidemiological data, was used to inform public health decision-making in the Netherlands.

DOI:   16 July 2020

Comparing SARS-CoV-2 with SARS-CoV and influenza pandemics
Petersen et al. 2020

The objective of this Personal View is to compare transmissibility, hospitalisation, and mortality rates for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with those of other epidemic coronaviruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and pandemic influenza viruses. The basic reproductive rate (R0) for SARS-CoV-2 is estimated to be 2·5 (range 1·8–3·6) compared with 2·0–3·0 for SARS-CoV and the 1918 influenza pandemic, 0·9 for MERS-CoV, and 1·5 for the 2009 influenza pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 causes mild or asymptomatic disease in most cases; however, severe to critical illness occurs in a small proportion of infected individuals, with the highest rate seen in people older than 70 years. The measured case fatality rate varies between countries, probably because of differences in testing strategies. Population-based mortality estimates vary widely across Europe, ranging from zero to high. Numbers from the first affected region in Italy, Lombardy, show an all age mortality rate of 154 per 100 000 population. Differences are most likely due to varying demographic structures, among other factors. However, this new virus has a focal dissemination; therefore, some areas have a higher disease burden and are affected more than others for reasons that are still not understood. Nevertheless, early introduction of strict physical distancing and hygiene measures have proven effective in sharply reducing R0 and associated mortality and could in part explain the geographical differences.

DOI:    03 July 2020

COVID-19 in health-care workers in three hospitals in the south of the Netherlands: a cross-sectional study
Sikkema et al. 2020

10 days after the first reported case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the Netherlands (on Feb 27, 2020), 55 (4%) of 1497 health-care workers in nine hospitals located in the south of the Netherlands had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. We aimed to gain insight in possible sources of infection in health-care workers.

DOI:  02 July 2020

Suppression of a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in the Italian municipality of Vo’
Lavezzo et al. 2020

On 21 February 2020, a resident of the municipality of Vo’, a small town near Padua (Italy), died of pneumonia due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection1. This was the first coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19)-related death detected in Italy since the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in the Chinese city of Wuhan, Hubei province2. In response, the regional authorities imposed the lockdown of the whole municipality for 14 days3. Here we collected information on the demography, clinical presentation, hospitalization, contact network and the presence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in nasopharyngeal swabs for 85.9% and 71.5% of the population of Vo’ at two consecutive time points. From the first survey, which was conducted around the time the town lockdown started, we found a prevalence of infection of 2.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1–3.3%). From the second survey, which was conducted at the end of the lockdown, we found a prevalence of 1.2% (95% CI: 0.8–1.8%). Notably, 42.5% (95% CI: 31.5–54.6%) of the confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections detected across the two surveys were asymptomatic (that is, did not have symptoms at the time of swab testing and did not develop symptoms afterwards). The mean serial interval was 7.2 days (95% CI: 5.9–9.6). We found no statistically significant difference in the viral load of symptomatic versus asymptomatic infections (P = 0.62 and 0.74 for E and RdRp genes, respectively, exact Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney test). This study sheds light on the frequency of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, their infectivity (as measured by the viral load) and provides insights into its transmission dynamics and the efficacy of the implemented control measures.

DOI:  30 June 2020

Comparative pathogenesis of COVID-19, MERS, and SARS in a nonhuman primate model
Rockx et al. 2020

The current pandemic coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome–coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was recently identified in patients with an acute respiratory syndrome, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To compare its pathogenesis with that of previously emerging coronaviruses, we inoculated cynomolgus macaques with SARS-CoV-2 or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)–CoV and compared the pathology and virology with historical reports of SARS-CoV infections. In SARS-CoV-2–infected macaques, virus was excreted from nose and throat in the absence of clinical signs and detected in type I and II pneumocytes in foci of diffuse alveolar damage and in ciliated epithelial cells of nasal, bronchial, and bronchiolar mucosae.

DOI:   29 May 2020

Human West Nile Virus Lineage 2 Infection: Epidemiological, Clinical, and Virological Findings
Pacenti et al. 2020

West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 is expanding and causing large outbreaks in Europe. In this study, we analyzed the epidemiological, clinical, and virological features of WNV lineage 2 infection during the large outbreak that occurred in northern Italy in 2018. The study population included 86 patients with neuroinvasive disease (WNND), 307 with fever (WNF), and 34 blood donors. Phylogenetic analysis of WNV full genome sequences from patients’ samples showed that the virus belonged to the widespread central/southern European clade of WNV lineage 2 and was circulating in the area at least since 2014. The incidence of WNND and WNF progressively increased with age and was higher in males than in females. Among WNND patients, the case fatality rate was 22%. About 70% of blood donors reported symptoms during follow-up. Within the first week after symptom onset, WNV RNA was detectable in the blood or urine of 80% of patients, while 20% and 40% of WNND and WNF patients, respectively, were WNV IgM-seronegative. In CSF samples of WNND patients, WNV RNA was typically detectable when WNV IgM antibodies were absent. Blunted or no WNV IgM response and high WNV IgG levels were observed in seven patients with previous flavivirus immunity.

DOI:    18 April 2020

Novel HPAIV H5N8 Reassortant (Clade Detected in Germany
King et al. 2020

A novel H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) was detected in a greater white-fronted goose in January 2020 in Brandenburg, Germany, and, in February 2020, in domestic chickens belonging to a smallholding in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany. Full-genome sequencing was conducted on the MinION platform, enabling further phylogenetic analyses. The virus of clade holds six segments from a Eurasian/Asian/African HPAIV H5N8 reassortant and two segments from low pathogenic avian influenza H3N8 subtype viruses recently detected in wild birds in Central Russia. These new entries continue to show the reassortment potential of the clade H5Nx viruses, underlining the necessity for full-genome sequencing and continuous surveillance.

DOI:    04 March 2020
6 JULY 2022